krίsiµo fίltro sthn agorάergasίaV''. Αμαλία Νικολάου Seέreunά thV sto panepistήµio tou Marylandto 1978, h Sells diapίstwse pwV µόno to 16% twnergodotώn, pouήqelan na proslάboun upallήlouVptucioύcouV,endiafέrontan gia apofoίtouV pou den eίcan didacqeί Maqhµatikή anάlush. Kai parόlo pou h agorά ergasίaV pou apaitoύse µaqhµatikέVgnώseiVpanepisthµiakoύ epipέdou ήtan µegalύterh kaiέdine uyhlόtereVaµoibέV, oariqµόVtwn koritsiώn pou µporoύse na epilέxei sto panepistήµio basikά µaqήµata AnάlushV, giatί eίce to katάllhlo µaqhµatikό upόbaqro apό to Guµnάsio, ήtan dusanάloga µikrόV. H Mhtriarcίa, sύmfwnametonBachofen (1861), eίnaimiamorfή koinwnikήVorgάnwshV pou sthrίzetai sth biologikή mhtrόthta, sth mhtrόthta dhladή wV kaqarά «fusikή» leitourgίa thV gunaίkaV, h opoίa den έcei scέsh me koinwnikά fainόmena, kamίaidiaίterhkoinwnikή diάstash. Autό loipόn pou topoqeteί thgunaίkasto epίkentrothVkoinwnikήVzwήV eίnaih «fύsh» thV kai h ikanόthtά thV gia anaparagwgή kai όci h koinwnikή ή oikonomikή sumbolή thVstiVpolitismikέVepiteύxeiV. Hqέshautή, sύmfwnamethnopoίaoi άntreVaxiologoύntaianάlogametomέgeqoVthVkoinwnikήVtouVprosforάV, enώ okoinwnikόVprosdiorismόVtwngunaikώn έcei wV afethrίa th biologikή, mh autokaqorizόmenh ikanόthtά touVna gennoύn paidiά, όpwV gίnetai kai sto zwikό basίleio, uposthrίcqhke άllwste kaiapό th neόterh eqnologίa, thn opoίa diakrίnei genikά ht άshna antleί epiceirήmata apό tontomέathVfusiobiologίaV (Mathieu, 1973). H qέsh twngunaikώn twn basilikώn oίkwn allά kai twn t opikώnarcontikώnoikogeneiώnallάzei. ψψ β ωβω ωβν ν OigunaίkeVautέVgίnontaioratέV, upobohqoύnsuzύgouVkaipatέreV, euergetoύn άtomakaipό- leiV, taoikonomikά touVdikaiώmatadieurύnontai. Gia na eίnai kaneίV άrcwn den creiά-zetai plέon oύte th stratiwtikή dύnamh ύtethrhtrikή eufrάdeia. Arkeί hkatagwgή ka ih katcή plύtu. Epiplέon, se cώreV όpw Vh AίguptoV, oi ntόpieVgunaίkeVapolάmbanan to dikaίwma na diaceirίzontai mόneV thn peri- ousίatouV kai na klhronomoύn όpwV kai oi άndreV, enώ seperiocέVthVM. AsίaV h άskhsh exousίaVapό gunaίkeV ήtan kάti tosύnhqeV. Pάnw apό όla όmwV to plaίsio thV klhronomikήV monarcίaVpou eίce plέon epiblhqeί sta ellhnistikά krάth epέtreye se kάpoieVgunaίkeVnapaίxounέnarόlostondhmόsiobίo. Ti akribώV έkanan oi basίlisseVtwn ellhnistikώncrόnwn; KάpoieV, όpwV h basίlissa Laodίkh, sύzugoVtoubasiliά thVPergάmouAntίocou, epidίdontan se euergesίeV gia na upobohqήsoun thn politikή tousuzύgoutouV. HLaodίkh, έdwse ston Strouqίwna, to dioikhtή thV pόlhV thV Iasoύ, έna megάlocrhmatikό posό giana proikistoύnoikόreV «twnasqenoύntwnpolitώn».TέtoieVeuergesίeV taίriazan ideologikά stogunaikeίo fύlo. Eίnai axioshmeίwto όti sto keίmeno thV epigrafήV h Laodίkh apeuqύnetaih ίdiaston Strou- qίwna, upogrammίzontaV έna eίdoVauto- nomίaVsthn euergetikή thVdrάsh. fusikά, hapόluthautonomίasthnpolitikή drάshautώntwnbasilissώnήtanadύnath. AkόmakaisthnAίgupto, όpouupήrceiscurή parάdoshanocήVsthgunaikeίaexousίa, todίkaioapai- toύsethsummetocή enόV άrrenasumba- silέa όtanbasίleuegunaίka: «HKle- opάtraB΄, όmwV, prάgmaprwtofanέVsthn ellhnistikή epocή, dendίstasenaanakurhcqή mόnhbasίlissa, cwrίVάrrena sumbasilέa».20 Prόkeitaigia έnaepeisόdio, apό tapollά, dunastikήVsύgkroushV, anάme- sasemέlhthVptolemaϊkήVdunasteίaV, sugkekrimέnaanάmesastonPtolemaίoH΄kaithnprώthsύzugokaiadelfή touKleopάtraB΄, to 132/1 p.C. HdeύterhsύzugoVtouPtolemaίouH΄(kaianiyiά tou), hKleopάtraG΄, anέ- labethnantibasileίametά toqάnatό tou, to 116 p.C., kaianάmesastiVkuber- nhtikέVthVprάxeiV ήtankaihcrhma- todόthshthVdeύterhVapostolήVtounautikoύ EύdoxoustiVIndίeV.21 ΌmwV, miaakόmhforά, basίleyanmόneVtouVgunaίkeVsthnptolemaϊkή Aίgupto: To 58 p.C., katά thnexorίatouPtolemaίouIA΄, toulegόmenou «Aulh- tή», hgunaίkatouKleopάtraTrύfainakaihkόrhtouBerenίkhB΄άskhsanthbasilikή exousίa. Akόma, kaihgnwstή KleopάtraZ΄, stodiάsthmathVbasileίaVthV (48-31 p.C.), moirάsthketoqrόnodiadocikά medύoadelfoύVthVkaitonanήlikogiothVKaisarίwna. EktόVapό tiVbasίlisseVupήrxankaiάlleVgunaίkeVpoudiadramάtisanpo- litikό rόlokatά thnellhnistikή epocή stonellhnikό cώro. Έtsi, hKrathsίpo- liVkubέrnhsewVtύrannoVthSikuώna, giaeptά crόnia, metά toqάnatotousu- zύgouthV. EpίshV, hkόrhtouturάnnouZhnofάnouV, Άba, έginebasίlissathVpόlhV ΌlbhV, pόlhVthVKilikίaV, metά togάmothVme έnamέloVthVieratikήVdunasteίaVtwnTeukridώn. Edraίwse th basileίathV me th «filίa» thV me ton Antώnio kaithnKleopάtra, dίnontάVtouVploύsiadώrakaifusikά ekqro- nίsthkemetά thnptώshtwniscurώn fίlwnthV.22 O OikoVH oikogέneia apartίzetai tόso apό ta mέlh thV purhnikήV oikogέneiaV, όso kai apό touV doύlouV pou eίcan ta mέlh autά sthn idiokthsίa touV., OnomasίaV miaV orfanήV kai άgamhV ή cήraV kόrhV cwrίV aderfό wV «epiklήrou». thn epίklhro qugatέra eίcan dikaίwma na numfeuqoύn: prώton o aderfόV tou patέra thV orfanήV, dhladή o qeίoV thV, deύteron ,o gioV tou, dhladή oprώtoV exάderfόV thV,trίton o gioV thV aderfήV tou patέra thV kai tέtarton,oi aderfoί tou pappoύ thV epiklήrou kai oi katiόnteV touV. WV «epίklhro»ennooύme thn klhronόmo. Wstόso, h «epίklhroV»den kateίce upό autή thnέnnoiah ίdia thn oikogeneiakή πεriousίa me to sunakόlouqo dikaίwma diaqέsewV autήV. Η periousίa parέmene sthn ίdia mέcri na eίnai έtoimoV o gioV thV na klhronomήsei. Eίnai axioshmeίwth en prokeimέnw h afaίresh apό thn ίdia th gunaίka oπiasdήpote dunatόthtaV epilogήV se έna zήthma mάlista, to opoίo thn aforά ex oloklήrou, me prόschma thn euhmerίa thV oikogέneiaV kai tou koinwnikoύ sunόlou, kataleίpon taV se deύterh έwV kai teleutaίa moίra thn proswpikή thV eutucίa, an lάboume mάlista upόyh maV όti o nόmoV thn upocrέwne sthn perίptwsh pou upήrcan polloί άntreV me thn ίdia suggenikή scέsh na numfeuqeί ton megalύtero se hlikίa!!«Aqhnaίa» ennooύme thn kόrh ή th sύzugo enόV Aqhnaίou polίth. h ίdia qa katόrqwne na epibiώsei metά th gέnnhsή thVkai na diafύgei ton kίnduno thV «έkqeshV» pou polύ sucnά diέtrece apό touV ίdiouV thV touV goneίV. katadeiknύei xekάqara thn praktikή thV έkqeshV twn neognώn kai eidikόtera twn qhlέwn. h gέnnhsh miaV kόrhV den ήtan tόso kalodecoύmenh sthn ellhnikή oikogέn. lambanomέnou upόyh όci mόno tou kόstouV anatrofήV touV, allά parάllhla kai thV upocrέwshV paracώrhshV se autέV proίkaV. Gia thn ekprosώphsh, loipόn, thV ίdiaV kaithn άskhsh twndikaiwmάtwn thVenώpion thV pόlhV upήrce pάnta kάpoioV άndraV - prostάthV, o «kύriόV» thV. ΌpwVcarakthristikά anafέreih Claude Mossé: «¼h Aqhnaίa eίnai mia aiώnia anήlikh,ki autήh adunamίa enhlikίwshV epibebaiώnetai apόthn anάgkh na έcei se όlh th zwήthV έnan khdemόna, έnan ''kύrio'',ton patέra thV prώta, έpeita to sύzugόthV,kai an autόV peqάnei prώtoV,to giothV ήse apousίa tou giouthV,ton pio kontinόsuggenή.H idέa miaV anύpantrhV gunaίkaV, anexάrththV, pou diaceirίzetai thn proswpikήthV periousίa,eίnai adianόhth>> «kύriόV» thV ginόtan o klhronόmoV tou, katά sunέpeia, safέV όti h Aqhnaίa gunaίka den ήtan potέ sth zwή th V anexάrthth. upocreώseiV, tou «kurίou» miaV AqhnaίaV ήtan h paracώrhsh se autή proίkaV Carakthristikό eίnai mάlista όti se perίptwsh diazugίou tόso apό thn pleurά tou ίdiou tou suzύgou, όso kai apό thn pleurά thV gunaίkaV, h ίdia epέstrefe sthn «kurieίa» tou patέrathV kai mazί me autή upocrewtikά kai h proίka pou thV eίce doqeί katά thn tέlesh tou gάmou. Giatί ektόV apό ti V eleύqereV AqhnaίeV, upήrcan asfalώV kai oi doύleV, oi opoίeV perittό na anaferqeί όti όci mόno oudemίa qέsh apolάmbanan ston koinwnikό istό, allά diήgan bίo idiaίtera sklhrό kai apάnqrwpo tiV perissόtereV forέV. OigunaίkeV autέV den eίcan oύte th dunatόthta na dhmiourgήsoun th dikή touV oikogέneia, endecomέnwV me kάpoion άllo doύlo. έqese th gunaίka sto periqώrio, egklwbίzontάV th mέsa sto spίti kai exasfalίzontάV thV έna rόlo kaqarά paidopoihtikό me apokleistikά kaqήkonta thn kaqhmerinή frontίda kai diaceίrish tou oίkouthV kai thn anatrofή twn paidiώn thV. h opoίa ήqele thn kάqe anύpantrh kόrh mέcri na ftάse ise hlikίa gάmou na zei periorismέnh kαi ousiastikά apokleismέnh ston oίko tou kurίouthV. H ekpaίdeusή touV periorizόtan apokleistikά kai mόno sth frontίda tou noikokurioύ, dedomέnou όti h gnώsh thV mageirikήV,thV kaqariόthtaV, τhV raptikήV kai thV ύfanshV touV exasfάlize όla όsa creiάzontan gia na μporέsoun na antapokriqoύn sto rόlopoutouV eίce ana qέseih aqhnaϊkή koinwnίa. H tέlesh ek mέrouV twn nearώn gunaikώn genetήsiwn prάxewn protου gάmou έdine to dikaίwma ston patέra na tiV poulήsei sto sklabopάzaro